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International Pediatrics, Infectious Diseases and Healthcare Conference, will be organized around the theme “Cognizance into Unexplored Areas of Pediatrics.”
Pediatrics-2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Pediatrics-2019
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Pediatrics is the field of medicine that is concerned about the well-being of neonatal, children, and adults. It also concerns on their development and advancement and their chance to accomplish maximum capacity as grown-ups. The Pediatric academy of America, prescribes that the children should be under pediatric care, up to the age of 21. The point of investigation of pediatrics is to decline the death rate of children and newborns, to control the spread of infectious diseases, for a long ailment free life. Infectious diseases, which annually claim about 14 million lives i.e. 25% of the more or less 56 million deaths recorded worldwide. The recent trends of pediatrics have achieved exceptional advances in reductions in childhood mortality. The global challenge of preventing HBV in children has shown that the deadliest infectious diseases can be prevented by acquiring proper awareness.
Pediatric immunology plays a prominent role in interpreting the cell and molecular mechanisms underlying the immune system and it has seriously intruded within the development of new diagnosis and treatment. A study of Immunological innovations has revealed that, respiratory panel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing shows negativity in case of presence of infection. This shows that immunological techniques of current trends are not widely available. Diagnosis for bronchiolitis and influenza is widely available nowadays. While for human rhinovirus, adenovirus, Para influenza, and/or human Meta pneumovirus is not readily available due to cost prohibitive. Immunogenic techniques are being advanced and updated due to the rise of resistant pathogens infecting children. A study suggests that Human Boca virus (HBoV) is the most recent respiratory virus which is difficult to diagnose. The journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society states that staphylococcus aureus strains are methicillin-resistant.
One of the emerging technologies recently is, Nanotechnology. The stream is very effective because it aims with target drug delivery. Nanotechnology is the manipulation of material on an atomic and molecular scale, by changing its physical, chemical and biological properties to produce novel materials, devices, and systems. Immunological techniques use nanotechnology to improve the health of the patients because of its biocompatibility. Nanoparticles can have cytotoxic, genotoxic, and inflammatory effects in mammalian cells, and can induce oxidative stress response, which should be considered before selection of Nano technological approach. The most important things are,
- \r\n High surface area \r\n
- \r\n Intrinsic toxicity \r\n
\r\n Recent study suggests that iron oxide nanoparticles were found in large variety of organism and they have collected response due to their super paramagnetic properties. The current study suggests that biofilm associated diseases are difficult to treat and hence the field of medicine uses Nanomaterial and Nanostructure.
Age-adapted drug formulations are a challenge in drug development. In formulating medications for pediatric, manufacturers must concentrate on dysphagia, dosing and physiological changes. The fact is that many of the pediatric medicines are scaled-down geriatric medicines. In infants and adults, the immaturity of the enzyme may determine the pharmacokinetics of the excipients. A study suggests that wrong medications might lead to adverse drug effects. A survey shows that hospitalization due to adverse effects is 4times higher in infants when compared with adults.
This section intends to provide potential risk associated with breast feeding in HIV infected women. Mothers infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can transmit the virus to their babies in utero, intrapartum or postpartum through breastfeeding. With response to community, edits were continued to integrate people’s language which focuses on person, rather than the diseases, says the survey. Mother-to-child HIV transmission reported that 2.1 million children living with HIV and 430,000 new HIV infections in infants occurring every year due to breast feeding. Hence efforts were made by making breastfeeding safer by using antiretroviral prophylaxis to either mothers or their infants. Advances were made in the field of perinatal HIV by providing an elvitegravir/cobicistat regimen as a therapeutic drug in deducing the viral load and therapeutics like intrapartum intravenous (IV) zidovudine as it is very effective in reducing the risk of transmission of HIV, the recent trend suggests that, a single dose of oral nevirapine to mothers during labor and to neonates would further reduce transmission of HIV. The United Nations recommendation states that the replacement feeding can be a avoidance of all breast-feeding by HIV-infected mothers. Otherwise, exclusive breast-feeding is recommended during the first months of life and should then be discontinued as soon as it is feasible.
The world of nutrition and healthcare is constantly changing, as new technologies emerge. Nutritional requirements differ for children when compared with adults, as they are in their growing age they need balanced nutrition. In the prenatal period, infant’s growth totally depends on maternal nutrition. They need for calories, especially in the form of protein, are greater than at any postnatal period because of rapid increase in both height and weight. Breastfeeding to age 2 years with appropriate complementary feeding after 6 months contributes to good nutrition, a study suggests. The trends in nutrition recommended Paleo diet for children as it is rich in high-protein, high-fiber diet consisting of lean meat, fish, fruits, veggies, eggs and oil and it is a gluten free diet. Since pediatric nutrition concerns the mother, the pediatric nutrition market is emerging globally at a significant pace. The Asian market is contributing significantly one-third of the world’s pediatric nutrition. The role of the nurse is to educate and give nutritional guidance for good eating habits. A special problem is overfeeding in the early childhood years, which may lead to several diseases.
With the increased population of children diagnosed with cancer, technology makes changes in pediatric oncology nursing care, treatment and prognosis. The incidence of cancer in childhood is increasing abruptly. It is estimated that the incidence of childhood cancer is increasing by 0.6% per year. Advances in the treatment of childhood cancer have shown an improvement in prognosis in recent years. Therefore, survivor rate of children with cancer is going to rise in the past decade. The recent trends in the treatment of pediatric oncology says that radiolabeled 131-I-MIBG selectively targets radiation to catecholamine-producing Neuroblastoma cells. Monoclonal antibodies play a vital role in the treatment of cancer in the field of onco-ped. They are designed to potentiate chemotherapy, particularly in the setting of relapsed leukemia. Four out of five children diagnosed with cancer can be cured with contemporary cancer therapy. Only a small percentage of childhood cancers, are due to familial or genetic factors and an even smaller percentage of childhood cancer has an identified environmental link.
According to public health England, quarter of children between the age group of 2 – 10 years old are overweight or obese around the globe and by 2034, 70 per cent of adults are expected to be obese. Children who are obese are at greater risk for high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes and heart disease and the study also suggests that Obesity rates are higher among Blacks and Latinos than among Whites and Asian Americans. The recent innovations in pediatric obesity says that Percent overweight (%OW) is helpful for providing evidence of weight change in severely obese children and recent treatment involves Lifestyle intervention which modifies children’s daily dietary and activity behaviors, targeting sustainable changes associated with healthy weight management. Pharmacotherapy is an emerging trend in the treatment of obesity in children but facing with side effects is the only cons it has.
The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) of around 17 or more parasitic diseases and its related infections represent the most common illness. Population growth, urbanization, deficiencies in water and sanitation systems lead to re- emergence of tropical diseases says the study. Cases of Neuro-schistosomiasis, Neurocysticercosis, and Chagasic stroke are increasingly detected in western countries. Recently, Chikungunya virus adapted to Aedus albopictus is spread in Europe has been reported. Dengue fever is the second most common mosquito-borne disease after malaria, and every year more than 50 million cases of dengue fever resulting in 25,000 fatalities. The pipelines for new drugs for these diseases have been dried for the past 3decades due to the absence of commercial market. Recently, Metallo-β-lactamase has been isolated from Klebsiella pneumonia, offering few treatment opportunities. Several vaccines, including vaccines against hookworm infection, schistosomiasis and leishmaniasis are in phase 1 and phase 2 clinical trials for product development. These would be used as “vaccine-linked chemotherapy” alongside drugs in a comprehensive treatment.
Metabolism is carried out by chemical substances called enzymes, which are made by cells in the body. If a genetic abnormality affects the function of an enzyme or causes it to be deficient or missing altogether, various metabolic disorders can occur. Metabolic disorders are classified by the particular building block that is affected. These disorders usually result from an,
Inability to break down a substance that should be broken down, allowing a toxic intermediate substance to build up
Inability to produce some essential substance
The recent epidemics of metabolic diseases cannot be attributed only to genetic background and changes in diet, exercise and aging. Metabolic diseases have their origins during development due to altered programming that increases susceptibility to disease later in life. Metabolism disruptors are endocrine disruptors that increase the susceptibility to metabolic diseases. Some metabolism disruptors may cause metabolic diseases pursue while others act via increasing the sensitivity or set point for disease. The metabolic disruptor hypothesis provides a focus on preventing metabolic diseases.
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can prolong life and improve its quality in patients with inherited metabolic diseases. HSCT offers a permanent source of enzyme replacement therapy and also might mediate non-hematopoietic cell regeneration or repair. Unrelated cord blood is an exciting newer graft source for treatment of patients with these fatal disorders.
For the past 10 years, there have been vast technological achievements in Pediatric interventional cardiology. In addition to that, there have been several advances in cardiac imaging, especially in 3-dimensional imaging of echocardiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and cine-angiography. Some advancement that reflect mainly on adult population, such as patent foramen ovale device closure and closure of post infarct ventricular septal defects aimed solution for Pediatric Cardiology. Therefore, more types of congenital heart diseases can be treated in the cardiac catheter laboratory today than ever before. As a result of recent technological advances, more types of CHDs than ever before are now possible to treat in the cardiac catheter laboratory. Furthermore, lesions previously considered resistant to interventional therapies can now be managed with high success rates. However, most current recommendations for interventional procedures refer to off-label use of devices. Nevertheless, the Pediatric interventional cardiology community has made attempts to develop better solutions to minimize the need for open heart surgery and optimize overall outcomes.
Children are prone to various infections. No matter how clean the environment is, the inherent nature of germs, tend to attract bacteria and other microbes. When babies are born, they come with a completely sterile digestive system and the immune system has not been activated. By preventing fungal infections, we ensure child’s wellbeing. The prevalence of fungal and bacterial infections is increasing, representing an enormous challenge to healthcare professionals. This increase is directly related to the growing population of immunocompromised individuals especially children with the use of intensive chemotherapy and immunosuppressive drugs. Bacteria have been recognized as a cause of serious infection with increased frequency during the past 2 decades. Virtually not all fungi are pathogenic, and their infection is opportunistic. Opportunistic fungal infections cause diseases exclusively in immune-compromised individuals. Recent study has been reported that, the fungal infections in babies and infants, if left untreated, are dangerous and can even lead to death due to compromised immune systems and weakening inflammatory response. The current trend in treating bacterial and fungal infection is Soy, a hormone disruptor. About 75% of the U.S. soy crop is now genetically engineered.
Yoga is a mind-body practice that originated in India at least 2000 years ago. It is recognized by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) as a form of CAM in the category of “mind-body” medicine. NCCAM asserts that mind-body medicine focuses on the interactions among the brain, mind, body, and behaviour, and on the powerful ways in which emotional, mental, social, spiritual, and behavioural factors can directly affect health.
Thirty four controlled studies were identified published from 1979 to 2008, with 19 RCTS and 15 NRCTs. Clinical areas for which yoga has been studied include physical fitness, cardio-respiratory effects, motor skills/strength, mental health and psychological disorders, behaviour and development, irritable bowel syndrome, and birth outcomes following prenatal yoga. There is also a progressive trend toward use of yoga as a mind-body complementary and alternative medicine intervention to improve specific physical and mental health conditions. To provide clinicians with therapeutically useful information about yoga, the evidence evaluating yoga as an effective intervention for children with health problems is reviewed. Yoga appears promising as a complementary therapy for children
Newborn congenital infections, have a variety of causes fluctuate from pregnancy to genetic malformations in utero. In many cases, however, a congenital anomaly may have no known cause. For e.g. the structural defect such as spina bifida is obvious at birth, whereas hemophilia a functional defect (a bleeding disorder) is not usually obvious until infancy or childhood. An estimation of about 270 000 deaths during the first 28 days of life were reported due to congenital anomalies globally. Advanced interventions of the neonatal infection risk have further led to identification of several promising potential biomarkers that may translate to improved diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of neonatal sepsis in the future. Very low birth weight is an important factor for neonatal infection. Microbial agents can be transmitted from the mother to the fetus either Trans placentally, haematogenously, or via the birth canal. Microbial agents may penetrate the placental barrier and contaminate the fetus, often leading with neonatal infections. Recent studies revealed that emerging pathogens are predominantly Gram positive, of which coagulase-negative staphylococci are the commonest organisms accounting for 45–75% of all late-onset bloodstream infections.
The advanced practice nurse (APN) functions in pediatric surgery in a variety of ways. Changes in the standard of care for pediatric patients are not something the medical community takes lightly. However, there is an exception when developing clinical care guidelines for use with the pediatric patient. The recent interventions in the field of pediatric nursing paves way for the use of a machine to take over the work of the lungs, and sometimes the heart, as a rescue therapy—has given patients a second chance at life over the last 25 years and smart pills include a tiny sensor, when ingested, transmit a signal to a patch the patient wears. The greatest intervention in the field of pediatric surgery is that the stem cells-have the potential to turn into anything—a skin cell, a liver cell, a brain cell. And stem cell transplants have the power to treat a wide range of diseases in children, from cancers like Leukemia, Lymphoma and Neuroblastoma to blood disorders, immune system diseases and bone marrow syndromes. The recent trends have reported that the chemical named sildenafil citric (the same chemical as Viagra) to reverse pulmonary hypertension.